Biology and ecology of the black backed jackal and caracal
Sunday, 30th December 2018
BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF THE BLACK-BACKED JACKAL AND THE CARACAL
Minnie, L., Avenant, N.L., Drouilly, M., Samuels, I., Kerley, G.I.H., Wilson, S.L. & Balfour, D. (Eds)
Livestock Predation and its Management in South Africa:
A Scientific Assessment. Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth.
Globally, several carnivore species have been implicated as livestock predators, these ranging in body size from the mongoose (Herpestidae) (e.g. Minnie, 2009) to the tiger Panthera tigris (Gusset, Swarner, Mponwane, Keletile & McNutt, 2009; Van der Merwe, Avenant & Lues, 2009a) and bears (e.g. Li, Buzzard, Chen & Jiang, 2013). However, medium-sized canids and felids are most often implicated in livestock predation. For example, red foxes Vulpes vulpes – the most widely distributed canid species apart from domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris – attack and kill livestock both in their natural and introduced ranges (Sillero-Zubiri, Hoffmann & MacDonald, 2004); coyotes Canis latrans and dingoes Canis lupus dingo are the dominant predators of livestock in North America and Australia, respectively (Sillero-Zubiri et al.,
2004). In addition, golden jackals Canis aureus prey on livestock in Africa, Europe and the Middle East (e.g. Yom-Tov, Ashkenazi & Viner, 1995). Furthermore, the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx and to a lesser extent bobcats Lynx rufus have been implicated in livestock predation in Europe and North America, respectively (see Inskip & Zimmermann, 2009 for review). In contrast to the Canidae, the larger species of the Felidae (e.g. leopard, Panthera pardus) are more often implicated as livestock predators, apart from caracal Caracal caracal and Eurasian lynx (Inskip & Zimmermann, 2009).